Antibiotic

ANTIBIOTIC

Antibiotic
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What is Antibiotic?

The word Antibiotic means “Against Life “. An Antibiotic is antimicrobial/antibacterial agents or substance which act against, destroy or inhibit (slow down) the reproduction and growth of Bacteria.

Antibiotic was first discovered by Sir ALEXANDER FLEMING in 1928 and was available in 1940s. The mass production and distribution were done in 1945.

When to Administer Antibiotics?

Antibiotics should be used wisely so that you can get the best result for your treatment. It comes in many forms like in capsules, tablets, powder, drops, drip, injections, ointments. Always consult your doctor or healthcare provider before taking antibiotics because some antibiotics can lead to many side-effects and even to life threat with most of the drugs. The doses of the antibiotics are adjusted according to the age and disease condition. 

The durtaion between the doses should be minimum 8 hours (TDS) atleast. Many consumes it whenever they want and without following the prescription time, these causes poor results. Taking it in viral infection is mal practice and consuming it without any necessary can lead damages to the body organs especially the Liver and Kidney failure. 

Antibiotics can be administered through different routes specially – Oral route, Intravenous (IV) route, Intramuscular (IM) route.

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Type of Infections that can be cured with Antibiotics

Following are some of the infections which can be cured with antibiotics :

  • Acne
  • Bronchitis
  • Bacterial Pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Dental Infections
  • Ear Infection (Otitis Media)
  • Kidney Infection
  • Meningitis
  • Strep Throat
  • Skin Infection
  • Sinus Infection
  • Sepsis (Blood Infection caused by Bacteria)
  • STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
  • Traveler’s Diarrhoea
  • UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
  • Whooping Cough

We make a huge mistake by taking Antibiotics in Viral Infection. They do not work in Viral Infection, for example in Common Cold, Sore Throats, Flu and Chest Cold.

Common Side Effects of Antibiotics

While consuming Antibiotics, sometimes the individual/person face side effects according to their tolerance towards the drug. Some of the common side effects are as follows : 

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Indigestion
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Nausea
  • Rashes
  • Vomiting
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7 Most Common Types of Antibiotics

They are classified into 7 classes which are as follows with examples, therapeutic use and side effects :


Class 1- Penicillins


 

1. Natural Penicillin

2. Penicillinase- Resistant Agents

  • Cloxacillin

  • Oxacillin

3. Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors

  • Sulbactam

  • Clavulanate/ Clavulanic acid

  • Tazobactam

4. Aminopenicillins

  • Amoxicillin

  • Ampicillin

 

Therapeutic Uses of Penicillin

Penicillin is used to Cure :

  • Syphilis and Gonococcal

  • Streptococcal Infection

  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ( Gram-negative Rod Shaped Bacteria )

  • Haemophilus Influenza

 

Side Effects

  • Skin Rashes

  • Anaphylactic Shock

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Side effects are more common with Parenteral route administration ( using syringe )


Class 2- Aminoglycosides


  • Amikacin

  • Gentamicin

  • Streptomycin

  • Neomycin

  • Tobramycin

  • Kanamycin

 

Therapeutic Uses of Aminoglycosides

  • Pseudomonas Infection

  • Gram-Negative Pneumonias

 

Side Effects

  • Ototoxicity ( Toxic to the Ear )

  • Neuromuscular Blockage

  • Nephrotoxicity ( Toxic to the Kidney )


Class 3- Cephalosporins


1. First Generation

  • Cefalexin

  • Cefazolin

  • Cefadroxil

2. Second Generation

  • Cefprozil

  • Cefuroxime

  • Cefaclor

  • Cefoxitin

3. Third Generation

  • Ceftriaxone

  • Cefotaxime

  • Cefixime

4. Fourth Generation ( Injection )

  • Cefpime

  • Cepirome

5. Fifth Generation ( Injection )

  • Ceftaroline

  • Ceftobiprole

 

Therapeutic Uses of Cephalosporins

  • Soft Tissue Infection

  • Pneumonia

  • UTI ( Urinary Tract Infection )

  • Bacterial Infection

 

Side Effects

  • Nephrotoxicity

  • Thrombophlebitis ( Inflammation causing Blockage and cloating of Blood in Veins )

  • Minor Gastrointestinal Complain 


Class 4- Fluoroquinolones


1. First Generation

  • Ofloxacin

  • Norfloxacin

  • Ciprofloxacin

2. Second Generation

  • Levofloxacin

  • Moxifloxacin

 

Therapeutic Uses of Fluoroquinolones

  • Cystic Fibrosis

  • Chronic Bronchitis

  • Pneumocystis Pneumonia

  • Haemophilus Influenza

  • Neisseria Meningitides

  • Pertussis

  • Pseudomonas

 

Side Effects

  • Children below age 21 is contraindicated to Ciprofloxacin


Class 5- Tetracyclines


  • Tetracycline

  • Doxycycline

  • Minocycline

  • Oxytetracycline

  • Demeclocycline

 

Therapeutic Uses of Tetracyclines

  • Pneumonias ( Atypical )

  • Mycoplasmal Infection

 

Side Effects

  • Depression of Bone Marrow 

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Oral Candidiasis

  • Vaginal Candidiasis

  • Discoloration of Teeth in Children

  • Growth Retardation

 


Class 6- Sulfonamides


  • Sulfamethoxazole

  • Trimethoprim

  • Cotrimoxazole

 

Therapeutic Uses of Sulfonamides

  • Urinary Tract Infection

  • Pneumonia

  • Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia

 

Side Effects

  • Fever

  • Leukopenia

  • Rashes


Class 7- Macrolides


  • Azithromycin

  • Erythromycin

  • Roxithromycin

  • Clarithromycin

 

Therapeutic Uses of Macrolides

  • Respiratory Tract Infection

  • Gastrointestinal Infection

  • Genital Infection

  • Soft Tissue Infection

  • mycoplasma [ Drug of choice ]

 

Side Effects

  • Anorexia

  • Diarrhoea

  • Gastrointestinal Upset

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